This project is one of the first large interdisciplinary funded projects consisting of a diverse group (biologist, electrical engineer, computer scientist) in the university and one of the first 11 to be funded under the NSF INSPIRE CREATIV program (link); press release here. Below, we give an overview of the intellectual merits of the proposed research and the outcomes.
- Intellectual Merit 1: Research and development of a hardware platform consisting of low cost, rugged, and easily customizable sensor nodes of different form factors for ubiquitous use across several disciplines.
- Intellectual Merit 2: Autonomous Manipulation and Monitoring of Electrophysiological Parameters of Electromotor Circuits in Vivo and In Vitro using WSNs.
- Intellectual Merit 3: Protocols and algorithm design for aquatic sensor networks on the field for data gathering at desired rates.
- Intellectual Merit 4: Create a framework to integrate the hardware platform and the software suite to create a low-cost and customizable wireless sensor network platform for use by researchers in fields, such as biology, agriculture, and ecology and environmental sciences.
In this project, the PI Dr. Misra and his students have already built the sensor with the larger form factor. This sensor has been used in several experiments for data gathering, including gathering electric organ discharge data. Several sensors have also been used for deployments in agricultural research. The results from the initial deployment were also reported as preliminary work in a recent NSF CPS proposal.
Dr. Unguez, Dr. Tang, and Dr. Misra and their students have worked together to build the miniature sensors. There are two versions of this sensor: one that uses commercial-off-the-shelf components, namely a standard microcontroller, its ADC, and standard components, and a zero-crossing code built to capture the frequency of the fish electric organ discharge (EOD). The other version uses miniaturized low-power components (ADC, sensing circuitry, and automatic gain controllers) that were built in-house by Dr. Misra, Dr. Tang and the students. The results of comparisons between the assembled COTS sensors and the custom built miniature sensors demonstrated that the custom built sensors reduced energy consumption significantly; by almost an order of magnitude. This would allow for operating the sensor over several months with duty cycling. We are also testing an energy management circuit that we have fabricated for energy harvesting and hope to build it into the sensor platform. This system when fully functional will significantly move the state of the art in both the biology (especially aquatic research) and electrical/computer engineering fields.
Dr. Unguez, her students, and Dr. Tang have built the circuitry for remote stimulation. This has been presented at a conference in 2015. After the first underwater deployment, and testing of the miniature sensors the team is going to integrate the sensor and the stimulator as a single unit and deploy it on the fish. The team has been running into issues with this deployment due to the problems in affixing the sensors on the fish. Once that task is completed, the team does not believe there will be any issue with integrating the two sensors together.
PIs Misra and Huang have also made significant contributions in wireless networking state of the art during the course of the year. a) Dr. Misra and his students have authored a security and privacy survey in information-centric networking, a secure routing and on-boarding protocol for wireless Internet of Things devices, and a secure access control protocols designed for wireless devices. b) PIs Misra and Huang have proposed using compressed sensing for wireless sensor communications (especially for multimedia), capacity modeling in underwater sensor networks with multiple sinks (designed for a deployment scenario in the wild with several fish equipped with sensors transmitting to sinks deployed underwater), and modeling wireless channel capacity in the presence of overwhelming amount of interference and jamming. c) PI Huang has also made several contributions to algorithmic research in wired and wireless networks.
The team has tested the hardware/software framework on several small deployments and a large deployment, which was successful. In the large deployment 196 sensors were deployed in an agricultural experiment. In the experiment, the sensors transmitted their data over a multi-hop path to a Raspberry Pi serving as a base station. The base station then transmitted the data to our server. The data in the server was visualized by the researchers using the Portcullis software developed by us in the past.
This year we have had several significant results reported. This includes wireless and Internet of Things protocols and algorithms design and developments and contributions in the area of information-centric networking. On the biology front Dr. Unguez and her group has performed comprehensive analysis of parallel mRNA and miRNA profiles of S. macrurus, which is not only a foundation for functional studies aimed at identifying mechanisms underlying the transcription-independent myogenic program.
Dr. Misra and Dr. Huang have proposed a) compressed sensing for wireless sensor communications (especially for multimedia), b) capacity modeling in underwater sensor networks with multiple sinks (designed for a deployment scenario in the wild with several fish equipped with sensors transmitting to sinks deployed underwater); c) secure, private, and scalable protocol design in the information-centric networking and Internet of Things (IoT) domain nexus, particularly for wireless edge networks; and d) Dr. Huang has published several results in compressed sensing for networked switches, software defined networking, and security in wired networks.
Opportunities for training and professional development:
The students have been involved in several interdisciplinary interactions encompassing biology, electrical engineering, computer science, and agriculture. This year the students are going to be involved in a project involving animal and range science. The project has provided the students’ hands-on experience in hardware/software co-design, large system software design, and end-to-end software development and integration. The students have also been involved in designing and developing protocols and algorithms.
This year another aspect we are exploring is interfacing our sensors with available embedded systems hardware, such as Raspberry Pi, Arduino Due, or Arduino Mega. This will help the students learn how to interface with new hardware and address interfacing challenges.
Dissemination of the results:
The results have been disseminated in conferences and journal publications and presentation at conference venues. More details on dissemination can be obtained from our publications page.
Journals or Juried Conference Papers
1. G. Panwar, R. Tourani, T. Mick, A. Mtibaa and S. Misra (2017). DICE: Dynamic Multi-RAT Selection in the ICN-enabled Wireless Edge. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communications Review.
2. Güth R, Chaidez A, Pinch M, Samanta MP and Unguez GA (2016). The properties of skeletal muscle in the teleost Sternopygus macrurus are unaffected by short-term electrical inactivity. J. Physiol Genomics. 48 (9), DOI: 10.1152/physiolgenomics.00068.2016
3. Güth R, Pinch M, Samanta MP, Chaidez A and Unguez GA (2017). Sternopygus macrurus electric organ transcriptome and cell size exhibit insensitivity to acute electrical inactivity. J. Physiol Paris. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jphysparis.2016.11.005
4. H. Barani, A. Golmohammadi, H. Huang, S. Misra (2016). Analysis of the throughput capacity and delay in a wireless sensor network with multiple sinks.. Proc. of IEEE Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics & Mobile Communication Conference (UEMCON). DOI: 10.1109/UEMCON.2016.7777907
5. H. Barani, Y. Jaradat, H. Huang, Z. Li, and S. Misra (2017). The Effect of Popularity Rule on Capacity and Delay in Multi-Sink WSNs. Proc. of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC). DOI: 10.1109/WCNC.2017.7925556
6. Hajar Barani, Ahmad Golmohammadi, Hong Huang and Satyajayant Misra (2016). Analysis of the Throughput Capacity and Delay in a Wireless Sensor Network with Multiple Sinks. IEEE Annual Ubiquitous Computing, Electronics & Mobile Communication Conference. DOI: 10.1109/UEMCON.2016.7777907
7. Hajar Barani, Yousef Jaradet, Hong Huang, Zhicheng Li and Satyajayant Misra (2017). Effect of Popularity Rule on Capacity and Delay in Multi-Sink WSNs. The IEEE Wireless Communication and Networking Conference. DOI: 10.1109/WCNC.2017.7925556
8. Hong Huang, Yousef Jaradet, Amjad Abu-Baker, Rafael Asorey-Cacheda, Satyajayant Misra, Reza Tourani, Mohammad Masoud, Ismael Jannoud (2017). Capacity of Large-scale Wireless Networks Under Jamming: Modeling and Analyses. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Communication. 66 (9), DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2017.2681656
9. J. Obert, I. Pivkina, H. Huang, H. Cao (2016). Proactively Applied Encryption in Multipath Networks. Computers & Security (Elsevier). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cose.2015.12.003
10. M. Masoud , Y. Jaradat, I. Jannoud, and H. Huang (2017). The Impact of 16-bit and 32-bit ASNs Coexistence on the Accuracy of Internet AS Graph. Springer Journal of Network System Management. 25 (2), DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10922-016-9389-5
11. M. Masoud, Y. Jaradat, I. Jannoud and H. Huang (2017). DRA: Duplication Resolver Algorithm for Power Conservation Utilizing Software Defined Network (SDN). Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (a Thomson Reuters Journal).
12. Reza Tourani, Satyajayant Misra and Travis Mick (2016). IC-MCN: An Architecture for an Information-centric mobile Converged Network. IEEE Communication Magazine. 54 (9), DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2016.7565186
13. Reza Tourani, Satyajayant Misra, Travis Mick and Gaurav Panwar (2017). Security, Privacy, and Access Control in Information- Centric Networking: A Survey. IEEE Communications on Survey and Tutorial. DOI: 10.1109/COMST.2017.2749508
14. S. Parvin, A. Mtibaa, H. Huang, S. Misra, S. Mahbub, R. Zahedi, and A. Alshehr (2017). STAR: STAble Routing for Hidden Interfering Primary User Problems in Mobile Cognitive Radio Networks. IEEE Milcom Conference, 2017.
15. Satyajayant Misra, Abu Saleh Md Tayeen and Wen Xu (2016). SybilExposer: An effective scheme to detect Sybil communities in online social networks. IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). ; DOI: 10.1109/ICC.2016.7511603
16. Satyajayant Misra, Reza Tourani, Frank Natividad, Travis Mick, Nahid Majd and Hong Huang (2017). AccConF: An Access Control Framework for Leveraging In-Network Cached Data in ICNs. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing. DOI: 10.1109/TDSC.2017.2672991
17. Travis Mick, Reza Tourani, and Satyajayant Misra (2017). LASeR: Lightweight Authentication and Secured Routing for NDN IoT in Smart Cities. IEEE IoT Journal. DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2017.2725238
18. Y. Jaradat, H. Huang, M. Masoud, and I. Janoud (2017). Capacity of Wireless Networks with Directed Energy Links in the Presence of Obstacles. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications. DOI: 10.1109/TWC.2017.2707487
19. Z. Li, Y. Xu, and H. Huang, and S. Misra (2016). Sparse Control and Compressed Sensing in Networked Switched Systems. IET Control Theory & Applications. DOI: 10.1049/iet-cta.2015.1330
20. Z. Li, Z. Fei, Y. Xu, H. Huang, and S. Misra (2017). Stability Analysis and Stabilization of Markovian Jump Systems with Time- varying Delay and Uncertain Transition Information. International Journal of Robust and Nonlinear Control (Wiley). DOI: 10.1002/rnc.3854
21. Zhicheng Li, Hong Huang and Satyajayant Misra (2016). Compressed Sensing via Dictionary Learning and Approximate Message Passing for Multimedia Internet of Things. IEEE Internet of Things Journal (IoT). DOI: 10.1109/JIOT.2016.2583465
Other Conference Presentations / Papers
1. Reza Tourani, Satyajayant Misra and Travis Mick (2016). Application-Specific Secure Gathering of Consumer Preferences and Feedback in ICNs. ACM Information-Centric Networking Conference. Kyoto, Japan.
2. Travis Mick, Reza Tourani and Satyajayant Misra (2016). MuNCC: Multi-hop Neighborhood Collaborative Caching in Information Centric Networks. IEEE Information-Centric Networking. Kyoto, Japan.
3. Vishnu Teja Kilari, Satyajayant Misra and Guoliang Xue (2016). Revocable Anonymity based Authentication for Vehicle to Grid (V2G) Communications. IEEE International Conference on Smart Grid Communication.
4. Reza Tourani, Satyajayant Misra,Travis Mick, Sukumar Brahma, Milan Biswal, Dan Ameme (2016). iCenS: An Information- Centric Smart Grid Network Architecture. IEEE SmartGridComm Conference.
1. Dan Ameme, Satyajayant Misra and Abderrahmen Mtibaa (2017). A Case for Information Centric Networking For Smart Grid Communications. Accepted and published as a poster for ACM SIGCOMM 2017, Los Angeles, CA.
2. Chaidez A, Pinch M, Samanta MP and Unguez GA (2016). Predicted targets of differentially expressed microRNAs in skeletal muscle and the muscle-derived electric organ of the electric fish Sternopygus macrurus. Abstract published in the International Society for Developmental Biology Conference; Boston, MA.
3. G. Panwar, R. Tourani, S. Misra and A. Mtibaa (2017). Request Aggregation: The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly. This is a poster that was published in the ACM Information-Centric Networking (ICN) Conference, September 2017, Berlin, Germany.
4. Yeh, C-L C, Güth R and Unguez GA (2016). Sarcomere disassembly during electrocyte regeneration in the adult fish Sternopygus macrurus.. Poster presentation in the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science; Washington, DC.
5. Hernandez I, McDowell M, Güth R and Unguez GA (2016). Structural and functional conservation of MyoD from three electric fish: Induction of muscle gene expression in non-muscle cells. Abstract submitted to the International Society for Developmental Biology Conference; Boston, MA.
1. A protocol for lightweight and provable secure communication for constrained devices. (in submission to the USPTO).
Individuals who have worked on the project:
- Satyajayant Misra (PI)
- Hong Huang (Co-PI)
- Graciela Unguez (Co-PI)
- Wei Tang (Collaborator)
- Zhicheng Li (Visiting Scholar/Post-doc) Completed
- Robert Gueth (PhD student, Biology) Completed
- Vince Ibarra (PhD student, ECE) Completed
- Travis Mick (MS student, CS) Completed
- Gaurav Panwar (MS/PhD student, CS)
- Bhumika Parikh (MS student, CS) Completed
- Matthew Pinch (PhD student, Biology)
- Reza Tourani (PhD student, CS)
- Andres Cuevas (MS student, CS)
- Ray Stubbs (UG student, CS)
Other collaborators or contacts involved:
- Y. Jaradet, M. Masoud, I. Jannoud from Al-Zaytoonah University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan.
- Yang Deng, Harbin Institute of Technology, Heilongjiang, China.
- Yinliang Xu, SYSU-CMU Shunde International Joint Research Institute, Foshan, China.
The impact on the development of the principal discipline(s):
The impact of this development has contributed to the state of the art in the disciplines of biology, electrical/computer engineering, and computer science. On the biology front, in the last year Dr. Unguez’s group has performed studies on the impact of spinal transection and resulting electrical inactivation of S. macrurus fish on the ventral muscles. Skeletal muscle is distinguished from other tissues on the basis of its shape, biochemistry, and physiological function. Based on mammalian studies, fiber size, fiber types, and gene expression profiles are regulated, in part, by the electrical activity exerted by the nervous system. The data shows that morphological and biochemical properties of skeletal muscle remained largely unchanged after the inactivation. Specifically, the distribution of Type I and Type II muscle fibers and the cross-sectional areas of these fiber types observed in control fish remained unaltered after each spinal transection survival period. This response to electrical inactivation was generally reflected at the transcript level in real-time PCR and RNA-seq data by showing little effect on the transcript levels of genes associated with muscle fiber type differentiation and plasticity, the sarcomere complex, and pathways implicated in the regulation of muscle fiber size.
Dr. Unguez, Dr. Tang and Dr. Misra and their students are still exploring mechanisms for the placement of the miniature sensor on the fish. The miniature sensor has been completed with combined effort from these collaborators and the students. There are two versions of the sensors that will be tested once the placement mechanism has been identified. The first version uses the standard microcontroller, its ADC, and standard components, and a zero-crossing code built to capture the frequency of the fish electric organ discharge (EOD). The other approach involves the use of custom-made miniaturized low- power components (ADC, sensing circuitry, and automatic gain controllers) for the specific sensing that will be performed. The two types of sensors were deployed in the lab to study fish and were compared in terms of performance. The custom hardware resulted in much better energy usage for the necessary signal to noise ratio of the signals for detection of the electric organ discharge. The test data was gathered over several days. The big challenge that the group is still addressing is the placement of the sensors on the fish. The team has unsuccessfully tried several approaches to affix the sensor on the fish: use of a plastic backpack (fabricated by the team with the help of mechanical engineers), a mesh enveloping the fish, a coil wrapping over the fish’s body with the sensor inside it. In all these approaches, the fish either managed to extract themselves from the contraption (frequent case) or became lethargic, which affected the readings obtained. We are still exploring ways to fix this problem.
PIs Misra and Huang have also made significant contributions in networking. During the course of the year, they have contributed to the state of the art in a) using compressed sensing for wireless sensor communications (especially for multimedia), b) capacity modeling in underwater sensor networks with multiple sinks (designed for a deployment scenario in the wild with several fish equipped with sensors transmitting to sinks deployed underwater) and also under interference from other communications in the environment. PI Misra and his students have also made significant contributions to secure, private, and scalable protocol design in the information-centric networking domain, which is being considered as a suitable paradigm for Internet of Things (IoT) device communications and wireless edge networks.
The impact on other disciplines:
Other than the impact in the disciplines of biology, electrical engineering, and computer engineering/science the research outcomes have found application in the field of agriculture. The PI has been collaborating with agriculturists at the New Mexico State University and the USDA to develop sensors for deployment in agricultural research projects. The collaboration has resulted in the deployment of 196 sensors for a project of one agriculture collaborator (Dr. Sangu Angadi). The preliminary results have been used in a recent NSF INFEWS grant, which entails a large multidisciplinary effort including agriculturists, water researchers, computer scientists, and economists across three national universities. The PIs students are in-charge of performing the research, development, and deployment of these sensors. The PI has also led a recent CPS effort bringing together a agriculturist, an agriculture pathologist, and a weather expert with CS researchers, which involves the building of a precision agriculture system to help with early warning during a crop disease event (focussed on chili, cotton, and corn).
The PI is also working on another agriculture project with another agriculture collaborator (Dr. Manoj Shukla) on using wireless sensors for monitoring soil water absorption and evaporation rates in different locations in a field and use machine learning to create models for water consumption. Thus the techniques and the framework designed by the PIs are being usefully employed in other disciplines of relevance.
The PI is also leveraging this platform to design a complete hardware/software framework for secure IoT-based building automation and management.
The impact on the development of human resources:
The research effort has been successful in creating an interdisciplinary group of students who work together and have become good at communicating the requirements, mechanisms, and techniques to a collaborator from another discipline. The project has single-handedly been instrumental in creating a sizable student population in the computer science, the electrical engineering, and the plant and environmental science departments that understands, and can build and program embedded systems hardware for desirable sensing and communication. Before the project started there did not exist students with such aptitude on campus.
The students funded from this grant are graduating and joining the workforce. Robert Guth is now a postdoctoral scholar at California State University, Northridge. Travis Mick has joined the Sandia National Lab. Vicente Ibarra has joined the Los Alamos National Labs. Gaurav Panwar has graduated and joined the PhD program with Dr. Misra.
The impact on physical resources that form infrastructure:
With the help of the funds the PIs have managed to buy important equipment that simplify the process of building the wireless sensors. Dr. Misra’s laboratory still possesses the only reflow oven in the university, it has a state of the art oscilloscope and a
signal generator, and has access to two high-end server-class machines. These have added to the capabilities of all three departments.
The impact on technology transfer:
One full patent has emerged from the work of the PI and his students. The title of the patent is: A Protocol for Lightweight and Provably Secure Communication for Constrained Devices. The PI and his students are working on another provisional patent in the next few months. The PI and one of the senior PhD students (Reza Tourani) is working with a local VC to create a start-up, the research was funded by CREATIV.
The impact on society beyond science and technology:
Our research is part of a strong K-12 outreach component at NMSU. PI Misra is a Co-PI for an REU site grant, which had its first cohort of 12 students. The PI has been deeply involved in such outreach activities. The findings is already informing human health, IoT, and agriculture research and development.
The video below shows the sensor being tested with the fish and the corresponding
frequency of the Electric organ discharge of the fish calculated by the sensor.
The following four videos show the sensor(smallest size)
being tested with a backpack on the fish.